Customer Requirements

Two Types of Customer Requirements

In general, there are two types of customer requirements, service requirements and output requirements. We need to satisfy them both. Service Requirements are subjective ways in which the customer expects to be treated and served during the process. For example, customer expects a smiling and friendly customer representative and even greets them by their names. Output Requirements are the features of the final product or service delivered to the customer at the end of the process. In terms of output requirements, customer almost always wants it accurate to their needs and on time.

Three levels of Customer Requirements

Based on the Kano Model, there are three distinct levels of customer needs, namely the Must Haves, Satisfiers and Delighters.

Must Haves

They are expected requirements of the customer. When fulfilled, customer will not be satisfied but when not fulfilled, customer will be very dissatisfied. Examples are such as toilets in an airplane, clean cutlery in a restaurant.


They are the requirements revealed or specified by the customer. The more these requirements are met the more the customer is satisfied. Examples are such are product lifespan, the more the better.


These are the ‘wow factors’ for customers. When not fulfilled, customer will not be dissatisfied but when fulfilled, they increase customer satisfaction dramatically. Examples are such as free wine in a restaurant.

It is important to understand that customer expectations changes. Over time, delighters become satisfiers and satisfiers become must haves. Such changes can be brought about by improvements made by competitors or customer ‘getting spoil’. The more you deliver the ‘WOW’ the more likely it will become expected of you to continue to deliver. As a result, your failure to continually repeat such delivery will result in dissatisfying the customer.